ABSTRACTS

CENTER FOR YOUNG SCIENTISTS (CYS) – INDONESIA

Spiritualism and Sociological Aspects of Balinese People in Earthquake Mitigation
Rama Gerald Jade, Putu Krishna Masari Kumara

The island of Bali is located in the Pacific ring of fire area, the alpide belt area, and above some tectonic plates (kumparan.com, 2018) which causes Bali to be a disaster-prone area. The Balinese ancestors realized and understood this reality and responded by creating disaster-related manuscripts and their mitigations, such as the lontar Roga Sangara Bumi, which explains about disaster mitigation according to Bali’s local wisdom, based on spirituality (Suyatra, 2018). But nowadays, various disasters that occur in Bali causes material losses and even casualties. In 1917, the earthquake in Bali killed 1500 lives and in 1976, 559 people were killed (beritabali.com, 2018).

The purpose of this study is (1) to study the lontar Roga Sangara Bumi manuscript as local wisdom in disaster mitigation, (2) to analyze why in the 20th century, there were still many fatalities and material disasters when the earthquake occurred in Bali, even though Bali had disaster mitigation manuscripts based on local wisdom. This study uses in-depth interviews and documentation studies. The study was conducted in Bali in January – March 2019.

Temporary conclusions (1) lontar Roga Sangara Bumi contains local wisdom in disaster mitigation, (2) There is a gap between Balinese people’s knowledge of lontar Roga Sangara Bumi manuscripts and changes in Balinese characters in the 20th century.

Keywords: Bali, Balinese People, Earthquakes, Disaster Mitigation, lontar Roga Sangara Bumi

Potential Racism Towards Chinese-Indonesian Students in Indonesian Public Schools
Florencia Naomi Tanuwijaya, Vallerie Jolie Tjondronegoro, Abigail Fiona Suwanto

China is the oldest existent civilization in the world and its population constitutes one-quarter of humanity. Chinese people are spread out around the world and we can definitely find Chinese people in most countries. Indonesia is one of the many countries where many Chinese people reside.

In Indonesia, there are a lot of ethnicities and cultures that are different between one and another. The majority of people in Indonesia are Melayu people, with Chinese-Indonesian people as the minority. During the New Order, a lot of people, especially the government, established certain limitations and stereotypes on the Chinese-Indonesian. Chinese schools were banned, and even the Chinese-Indonesian were not allowed to speak Chinese. The import of Chinese publications and medicines was also prohibited.

However, the attitude of the Indonesian government towards the Chinese-Indonesian have changed from time to time. These days, the Chinese-Indonesian can be more expressive regarding their cultural trait. For example, they can be a public figure easily, they can perform the barongsai show during Chinese New Year, etc.

Therefore, as the researcher complimenting the natural assimilation that arguably has taken place between Chinese-Indonesian and the non-Chinese after reformation in Indonesia, there were some disheartening news on papers that mentioned about racism happened to some Chinese-Indonesian in public spaces. Therefore, this research is aimed to investigate whether racism or discrimination towards the Chinese-Indonesian students in Indonesian Public School is still happening or not.

The research question, therefore, is how has Indonesia progressed to be a multicultural country where the Chinese-Indonesian and Indonesian people have assimilated over the years? The data will be collected through mix of quantitative and qualitative method, such as by interviews, observations, and also questionnaire given to the Chinese-Indonesian students in Indonesian public schools from several areas in Indonesia.

Keywords: Keywords : Chinese-Indonesian, New Order, Assimilationi

DETROIT COUNTRY DAY SCHOOL (DCDS) – USA

Sydney Holter, Re’monda Sheffield, Calihan Bearden, Aicha Chehmani

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that American students of color are 77% more likely to commit suicide compared to their white counterparts. Gender, as well as race, must also be considered when studying the influx of suicidal tendencies in American teens.

Gender and race contribute to the formation of social hierarchies around the world; data suggests that, globally, women of color ages 15-19 are most commonly victimized by social hierarchies (“Gender Factor”). Social hierarchies in school are among the factors which can lead to suicidal thoughts and tendencies. We examine the intersection and effect of gender and colorism in schools, specifically as it relates to global suicide rates among young women. When one adds colorism to existing discrimination women have faced throughout history, women of color are placed at a further disadvantage. Our goal is to analyze the relationship between gender and color and how the combination erodes school security, causing suicidal thoughts among women of color. Women of color often face discrimination in educational arenas, forcing them into social out groups. Out groups, a general assembly of people bonded by a common position as the result of rejection from a social in group, can form in schools due to gender and colorism combined.

Our investigation examines how gender and colorism combine to force women into out groups, thus negatively impacting their sense of inclusion and security in schools around the world.


LYCÉE SAINT JOSEPH – FRANCE

Food Security in our school

The region in which we live is the first agricultural region in France . We eat in the canteen everyday and we wonder if the food is coming from nearby productions. As a result, we wonder if it is possible to determine the origin, quality and ecological footprint of the food in the canteen.

To do this, we started by studying the composition of food, that is to say finding product labels as well as information on traceability. We then discussed with the canteen managers about short tours to organize a meal based on a few organic and local products. As a result, we investigated people’s conciousness of the quality of their food. In addition, to carry out our project, we must explore the possibility of using more local products in our school catering service. In addition, to complete our project, we need to research the possibility to using more local products in our school catering.


IV LIDEUM OGÓLNOKSZTALCACE IM. MIKOLAJA KOPERNIKA – POLAND

A foreigner doesn’t mean a stranger – Ukrainian immigrants in Rybnik
Kinga Kosinska, Pawel Sobala, Barttlomiej

Rybnik is located in the southern Poland, about 400 kilometres from the Ukrainian border and is inhabited by 140 thousand people. In the recent years the increase of imigration from Ukraine to Poland can be seen, even in Rybnik. Now, the number of Ukrainian people is 4 000, which is about 3% of all Rybnik’s population and the number is still increasing. In our project we will focus on ways of social inclusion of the immigrants, show the activity of institutions and organizations which take care of them. To investigate what troubles they experience, we are going to run the following research: surveys and interviews with the Ukrainians (adults and youth), with Poles (workers and co-workers) and with the representatives of the non-governmental organizations and collect information from departments. Areas of our research’s interest are legal barriers regarding the regulations of foreigners functioning in Poland, their level of language knowledge and establishing social relationships. Our surveys and interviews are adapted to the age of the respondents.

Our project aims to answer the question of social inclusion of the Ukrainians and whether it can be improved.

Keywords: immigration, social inclusion, social relations

MAKUHARI SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - JAPAN

Team: SABI
Rio Smith, Patrick Jennings, Ayaka Ono, Maya Kitajima

Japan is currently suffering from a rapidly shrinking and aging population. This leads to large gaps in the job market and a pension insurance system that cannot be covered by the current youth. In order to combat this problem the government has decided to introduce foreign workers into areas where it is difficult to secure the working force by introducing a revised immigration law that passed the parliament in December of 2018. Acknowledging the increase of foreigners into Japan, the purpose of this study is to compare and contrast two ways indigenous and foreign inhabitants in Japan can facilitate a peaceful co-existence through the idea of “multicultural symbiosis”. One of the ways is the ethnic enclaves and the other is the melting pots. This research paper aims to find out how Japan as a nation can coexist with foreigners in its society. This research will look at two case examples, Oizumi Town in Gunma Prefecture and Shin-Okubo in Tokyo. These areas will be analyzed from three different perspectives: those of the foreigners, the Japanese government, and the indigenous citizens. This is in order to find the advantages and disadvantages that ethnic enclaves and melting pots hold.


Team: WABI
Keilyn Toma, Saki Ohara, Maika Sato, Sayaka Yamashita

In a world that is increasingly experiencing the deadly effects of natural disasters, it is imperative that the process of recovery after such events is efficient, effective and sustainable. Japan, having been hit with some of the world’s most damaging natural disasters, is a country with extensive experience in dealing with such events and the recovery process that follows. That is why we felt that it was appropriate to discuss the issues of efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability by assessing the recovery process of Japanese cities. Ishinomaki City, located in the eastern province of Miyagi, was one of the most damaged areas during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Through surveys and interviews of victims and those in charge of recovery, as well as an analysis of recovery plans, we were able to gain a holistic understanding of the problems presented during recovery. We assessed the care given by the government and other institutions after the natural disaster, but also assessed the recovery of the city’s economy and infrastructure in accordance to government plans. We used this information to better the recovery plans presented by the government, but also applied the information to help other countries in similar situations.


MAURICK COLLEGE - THE NETHERLANDS

What will be the consequences of the sea level rise for The Netherlands?
Jorik Franken, Pien Mannaerts, Julia van Ravenswaaij, Robert Weber

Around 3.93 million people live below sea level in The Netherlands. If the sea level will rise another one meter, 6.57 million people would live below sea level.

In The Netherlands there is a complex system of dykes, dunes and flood defenses. These are called the delta works, which have been built after the great flood in 1953. The start of this construction was in 1954 and it was finished in 2010. The delta works protect these 3.93 million people from the high water. If it should fail somewhere that will have major consequences for many of these people, e.g. how do they get away in an extreme short period of time?

This study will investigate what the rise in sea level means for the Dutch population and economy. Also will be investigated what kind of social problems this will entail. The existing delta works have cost around one billion euros. A solution has to be found to protect the Netherlands from the sea level rise. It is expected that this will cost many billions of euros, independent from the answer on the big question: will the new construction be built for three or for ten generations? The Dutch government will have to get that money. This might create a number of social problems, especially in combination with the international agreed energy treaty.


PUNAHOU SCHOOL - HAWAII

Sea Level Rise
Liam Lynch, Hale Robinson, Lauren Luke

Oahu, Hawai’i, our island home, is currently suffering the many consequences of Climate Change. One repercussion is the threat of sea level rise, which, along with groundwater flooding and continuous coastal erosion, threatens our island’s shores. Recent studies have shown that the rate of sea level rise in Hawaii has tripled from the previous century and may be putting twice the amount of Hawaii’s land at risk (Anderson et al.) This example is just of the many ways that Climate Change affects both Hawai’i and the world we live in. Through resource depletion, significant loss in wildlife habitats, and an increased number of natural disasters, the worldwide effects of Climate Change have become increasingly apparent. However, despite scientific evidence, many people continue to ignore, resist, and downplay the realities of Climate Change. Recognizing this discrepancy, we turn to the Humanities to educate and persuade. Through storytelling (in written, digital-video and spoken-word form) we hope to bring these issues to light by raising awareness in our school community and expanding outward to inspire positive action that will not only serve as a beacon of hope for Hawaii, but for the world.


RAFFLES INSTITUTION - SINGAPORE

Not all black and white: An examination of the hidden dimensions of Trafficking in Persons
Rohan Sundaram, Huang Beihua, Ziv Ng Tian Fu, Jesper Loo Geng Yi

It is a disturbing fact that, despite humanity’s general condemnation of slavery, Trafficking In Persons continues growing in the 21st century. As an explanation, previous research has largely attributed this growth to government inaction, victims’ information asymmetry, and unscrupulous traffickers motivated by this lucrative business.

Our project aims to look at the issue of human trafficking in a different light. We propose that, while factors such as limited public awareness, a lack of effective governmental legislation, and a strong demand for low-cost labour contribute to trafficking-in-persons, the ethnicity of victims could play a prominent role in exacerbating mistreatment of victims in the whole chain of trafficking related activities, especially in societies where ethnic hierarchies form significant aspects of culture.

Using data from both national and international organisations, as well as local governments, we will analyse how each of the above factors aggravate the suffering of trafficked individuals, as well as broadly examine the mistreatment between trafficked individuals who are ethnically similar and dissimilar to local populations. In so doing, we hope to draw and clarify the connections between different factors leading to human trafficking, and to propose improvements to existing policies after considering our results.

Keywords: Racism, Jobs, Globalisation, Migration

RIVER VALLEY HIGH SCHOOL - SINGAPORE

Yan Rong Shermaine Ong, Jing Han Sarah Khaw, Yu Ren Zhang, Jia Jun Sean Lim

As a developed city-state, Singapore sets high standards for her built environment - in terms of aesthetics, functionality, safety and sustainability. However, the Kampung spirit, which is a strong bond amongst neighbours built on trust over time, appears to be diluting recently in the modern context. In an aim to foster greater spirit in communal living, a new mixed-use development, Kampung Admiralty, was built and it also attained the 'Building of the Year' title at the World Architecture Festival 2018 for its ingenious design which meets multiple sustainability needs. This project investigated people’s perceptions on Kampung Admiralty - specifically, if it had been catering well to residents’ needs and if it is socially sustainable. Survey questionnaires and interviews conducted were used to compare the opinions against an older kampung, Kampung Buangkok. Further insights on how to create and sustain a place that is liveable for an ageing population and future generations were also explored. The project ultimately tried to make sense of the unique features of the building that can help to promote economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Hopefully, these findings may then serve as a model for other urban buildings around the world.


Thazin Myat, Yi Xing, Won Kiat Yap, Rui Russell Luo

Governments across the world face many challenges of an aging population. While the economic one is often targeted, there are also many social challenges where the elderly, especially those who live alone, suffer from loneliness, depression and lack of accessibility to healthcare. As more elderly are now living alone, it calls for external support and initiatives to ensure their daily well-being. Our local postal services, SingPost recently implemented a new initiative called Postman Home Visits, where volunteer postmen will check on vulnerable elderly during their delivering rounds. We aim to study the outcomes and effectiveness of this new initiative in ensuring the well-being of the elderly participants through surveys and interviews. One area we would like to focus on is whether these home visits increases social interaction, overall well-being and health of the elderly. Using our results, we will evaluate if this programme would be worthwhile and beneficial enough to extend to a larger community.


SHIBUYA HIGH SCHOOL - JAPAN

Team: Connect Four
Misaki Uchida, Rikuo Miyamoto, Rinka Terashima, Alex Emerson

Last year, Hiroshima experienced one of the worst flood disasters, affecting the Japanese economy and society. ‘Apocalyptic’ floods continue to affect mankind all over the world and pose the most threat to people in less developed areas with little infrastructure. In order to prevent and combat floods, regions must have the necessary funds. However, in developing areas, long-lasting aid cannot be carried out due to the lack in this measure. We plan to provide this by spreading awareness using posters and social media to urge more people to make donations. The first problem in Japanese society is that information on flood disasters that occur in other countries are not taken up on media and shared. We will use photographs of international floods to show how people from different countries experience the same disasters as we do. We intend to collaborate with photographers and nongovernmental organizations in order to strengthen our movement. Although our plan will first take place in Shibuya on a small scale, we hope to expand it into an international movement. A photo is worth more than a thousand words, and it has the ability to connect people across the globe.


Team: STAR

What we desire to realize in this world is a society where everyone can work actively. Through our research, we focused on NEETs (people Not in Education, Employment, or Training). In the present situation, NEETs are common around the world. Among these people, there is a great number who are not even searching for jobs. Reasons these people become NEETs have a strong correlation with problems in their youth. Therefore, we focused on NEETs aged 16 to 24 who are hesitating to make their first step to return to society.

In our research and project, the point which we consider the most important is helping NEETs work actively, not passively. Our project aims to propose a nonprofit organization which helps NEETs actively contribute to solve various social issues. This organization prepares various enterprises for NEETs to contribute to society. NEETs would choose what they would like to do, and we would dispatch them to relevant positions or areas. For that, we will research about how to manage and finance the organization, how to assemble NEETs, how to get NEETs to feel the pleasure and worth of contributing to society, and how to help NEETs return to society from the organization.


VORDINGBORG GYMNASIUM - DENMARK

Cultural Co-existence
Anne Sofie Andersen, Christian Kruse

We live in a world of change. Migration, terror and refugee waves we have not seen a resemblance to since World War 2. We passively observe, as two opposite cultures fight each other in the same country, we see how a multitude of people settle in subcultural parallel societies, we see how intolerance and mistrust grow in people’s troubled minds. It is natural for human beings to be afraid of the unknown - a primal instinct which purpose is to keep us alive. In our modern society, you see a tendency to put your nation first instead of thinking broader and widely for an example of global security. To give this a perspective, the elected president of the US- President trump and also the conservative movement in England- Brexit. that’s why we ask the following questions: is it possible for religions to live side by side in the same nation, and if so how do we avoid cultural segregation? And is it a human responsibility to accept refugees or should the first priority be the security of the independent nation which we live in?

In connection with what we wrote above, we will investigate how you can inform people about foreign cultures and religions, and also what it takes to bury prejudices.


Sustainable Transportation
Nanna Staer Hincheli, Astrid Strange

This project seeks to examine how we can decrease the amount of CO2 emissions from transportation as well as the viability of green public transportation in our society. The project will focus primarily on trains as they are a popular mode of public transportation and one which has the lowest levels of emissions per person. The paper will focus on how trains can be made more attractive for people to use, how pollution from trains can be minimised, how big a difference it would make if all trains were converted to for example solar power and whether such a conversion is beneficial or even possible to develop. The project will look the benefits and consequences of reducing ticket prices, increasing the price of petrol and whether it is viable to use one to fund the other. It is necessary to include studies from abroad, such as India and Italy, and the reduced amount of sunlight in Winter must be taken into consideration as well.

In order to arrive at any significant conclusions, it is also necessary to research domestic efforts in this area as well as research green energy in general, solar and wind for example, and in general a lot of data and information will need to be gathered. We will also examine and consider Danish environmental policy with regards to emission standards and the country’s participation in The Paris Agreement. Additionally, several viewpoints will have to be examined as well as public opinion. We will employ both quantitative and qualitative methods when conducting research, such as interviews and public opinion polls. Finally, we hope to develop suggestions regarding policy or perhaps even practical solutions.


MARE DE DÉU DEL CARME - SPAIN

Consequences of a possible nuclear accident in Ascó (Spain)
Claudia Asensio, Laia Rubio, Jan Hofland

In 2017, citing Spanish Nuclear Society statistics, nuclear energy was the primary source of electricity in Spain, representing 21.2% of the total electricity production nationwide.

Spain has five active nuclear plants with seven reactors: Almaraz I and II, Ascó I and II, Cofrentes, Trillo I, and Vandellós II. Spain has only had 27 nuclear incidents since the first nuclear power plants were built in this country. According to the INES (International Nuclear Event Scale), none of these incidents has ever exceeded a level 3 on a scale of 7. Terrassa is 174 km from the nearest plant, Ascó. For example, the expansive wave from the Chernobyl accident, which was a level 7 incident, encompassed everything within an 1100 km radius, so as such, Terrassa would be completely destroyed in the event of an accident of this magnitude.

The first objective of this project is to assess the risk Terrassa would face in the event of a nuclear accident. What could possibly happen to us? What emergency protocols, if any, exist currently? If so, what do these include? Furthermore we will also focus on citizen awareness in the event of a nuclear disaster.